A set of informationally connected and coordinated airborne hardware and software for the transmission, storage and processing of information.Airborne equipment
All systems intended for use on an aerial vehicle (aircraft) that are not directly a part of either the aerial vehicle itself or its engines.Airborne equipment complex
An interrelated collection of units, devices, machines, systems, complexes and other technologies installed on an aerial vehicle to ensure guided flight, life sustenance of the aircrew and passengers, and perform target tasks corresponding to the purpose of the aerial vehicle.Airborne flight and navigational equipment
All measuring, computing and controlling systems, devices, and data presentation systems onboard an aircraft or helicopter intended for facilitating manual, automatically-controlled, semi-automatic and automatic navigation of aircraft and helicopters from takeoff to landing and information presentation to end-users.Airborne navigation complex
Airborne equipment designed to facilitate aircraft and helicopter navigation.Avionics
All electronic systems designed for use in aviation as airborne electronics. It basically includes communications, navigational, data presentation and unit control systems. Avionics stands for aviation electronics.Defensive aids system (DAS)
DAS is intended for defending aircraft and helicopters from attacks by aircraft missile, anti-aircraft and air defense artillery systems. To defend the aircraft, the threats need to be identified and countermeasures need to be taken against the attacking assets.
DAS includes the following stations (units) that may be installed as basic or auxiliary options in various combinations depending on the type and purpose of a specific aerial vehicle:
- control unit;
- radar warning unit;
- missile attack unit;
- ejection unit for the aircraft expendable measures, such as chaff, infrared flares, disposable jammers;
- active radio jamming station;
- noncoherent electro-optic countermeasures station;
- laser-based electro-optic countermeasures station.
For aircraft of long-range, military airlift and front-line aviation, an active aircraft-towed decoy may be used as an additional option. The decoy is intended for providing individual defense of an aircraft in the front and/or rear hemispheres against guided missiles with radar homing by retargeting missiles at attacking towed decoy.
Separate types of aerial vehicles may also be equipped with a multifunction display and an interface device.
A set of measures and efforts aimed at functional electronic destruction, electronic suppression, destruction of adversary electronic assets by weapons guided by emissions of such assets.Electronic protection
A set of measures and efforts aimed at eliminating or reducing the effect of adversary electronic systems on friendly electronic assets, protection against adversary electronic intelligence and ensuring electromagnetic compatibility of friendly electronic assets.Electronic warfare (EW)
A complex of coordinated measures and activities aimed at electronic destruction of adversary’s electronic assets, electronic defense of friendly electronic assets, as well as at ensuring electronic information support. EW plays an important role in the system of comprehensive engagement of the enemy, protection of friendly troops (forces) and facilities, information confrontation and also facilitates the fulfillment of operating (combat) tasks by troops (forces). The purpose of EW is to disrupt the adversary’s control systems, reduce the employment effectiveness of weapons, combat equipment and electronic systems; protect weapons, military equipment and facilities from the adversary’s intelligence technologies; ensure survivability of controls over troops (forces) and weapons. EW has to be supported with weapon attack (seizure, destruction) on the adversary’s key facilities, systems and controls over troops (forces), weapons, intelligence, EW and other kinds of operational support.
The EW objectives are met by performing a number of tasks, the main of which are as follows: development of electronic situation; electronic destruction (electronic suppression) of the adversary’s key facilities, systems and controls over troops (forces), weapons, intelligence and EW; destruction and (or) corruption of the enemy software and information stored in automated command and control systems; reducing the effectiveness of electronic destruction systems used by the adversary; integrated technical control over the protection of weapons, military equipment and military facilities against the adversary’s electronic intelligence technologies and countering these technologies; ensuring electromagnetic compatibility of electronic systems.Identification friend or foe system
A system intended for identifying the nationality of targets on the basis of the friend or foe principle. Currently, identification of targets is currently performed by a set of radiotechnical devices: interrogators and transponders. In the process, encryption equipment is used. In addition, the system may be equipped with a weapons interlock system that becomes active if a friendly asset is mistaken for hostile and targeted.Inertial navigation system (INS)
A system intended for identifying the nationality of targets on the basis of the friend or foe principle. Currently, identification of targets is currently performed by a set of radiotechnical devices: interrogators and transponders. In the process, encryption equipment is used. In addition, the system may be equipped with a weapons interlock system that becomes active if a friendly asset is mistaken for hostile and targeted.
INS include sensors of linear acceleration (accelerometers) and angular velocity (gyroscopes or a pair of accelerometers measuring centrifugal acceleration). INS can be used to assess the deviation of the device case coordinate system from the earth-fixed coordinate system obtaining the three orientation angles: yaw, roll and pitch. Angular coordinate deviation in terms of latitude, longitude and altitude is derived by integrating the readings of the accelerometers.
Any inertial navigation system consists of a sensor unit (accelerometers and gyroscopes) and a computing machine that implements the navigation algorithm. The accuracy of the output data directly depends on the characteristics of the sensors installed in the system, therefore, the most accurate navigational decision may only be made in inertial systems that use high-precision gyroscopes and accelerometers.
INS may be subdivided into two categories: those that have a gyrostabilized platform (gimballed INS) and strapdown INS. In gimballed INS the interconnection between the accelerometers and the gyroscopes that facilitate the spatial orientation of the accelerometers is defined by the type of the inertial system. There are 3 major types of gimballed INS: geometrical, analytical and semi-analytical. In a strapdown INS the accelerometers and the gyroscopes are rigidly fixed to the device case.
Structural, functional and functional unit consisting of separate types of systems, devices and assemblies of airborne equipment that were clustered in order to reduce the weight, increase the reliability and effectiveness in terms of performing functional tasks.Integrated modular avionics (IMA)
The concept of building an airborne complex based on an open network architecture and a single computing platform. “Integrated” means one that uses ‘pooled’ resources – power sources, processor, storage, communication buses, input-output sources – for a single task: control. In this case, the functions of the systems within the complex are performed by applications that share common computing and information resources.Jamming
Electronic warfare that implies reducing the effectiveness of operation of adversary electronic assets by affecting them with electronic interference.Land-based radar interrogator
Part of the missile defense system. Currently, identification of targets is currently performed by a set of radiotechnical devices: interrogators and transponders.
In the process, encryption equipment is used. The interrogator sends out a signal, i.e. it automatically initiates the information exchange with the transponder.
As the result of the exchange, the interrogator can locate and identify the target, as well as receive various information that the interrogator recovers from the target’s various systems and devices.Measuring instruments (MI)
The instruments intended for obtaining physical quantities of an object in the specified range. For example, MI include oscillographs, power meters, spectral analyzers, signal generators, frequency references and other devices.Radar station
A radar system used to detect airborne, seaand land-based targets, as well as to assess their remoteness, velocity and geometrics. A radar station uses a method based on emitting radio waves and recording their reflection from objects.Radiodetermination
A field of science and engineering that combines methods and means of location (detection and positioning) and measuring the properties of various objects using radio waves. The main technology used in radiodetermination is the radar station (radar).
Two types of radiodetermination are usually distinguished: passive (radiolocation) and active (radionavigation). Radiolocation is based on receiving the object’s self-radiation.
Radionavigation implies that a radar emits its own sounding signal and then receives the response (reflected) signal from the target.
The characteristics of the target are assessed on the basis of the received signal.
There are two types of radionavigation:
- with an active response – the target has a radio transmitter (transponder) that radiates radio waves in response to the incoming signal. Active response systems are used for target identification (friend or foe), remote controls, as well as to obtain additional data from the target (amount of fuel, type of target, etc.);
- with a passive response the signal of the radar station is reflected from the target and is used by the radar receiver to process the information and measure the characteristics of the target (position, velocity, type, etc.).
The strapdown inertial navigation system (INS) is designed to identify a position of an aerial vehicle, as well as to ensure integrated processing and presentation of navigational and flight information.
The accelerometers and gyroscopes of the strapdown INS are rigidly connected to the device case. Fiber-optic gyroscopes (FOGs) that use the Sagnac effect are regarded as the advanced technology in the manufacturing of strapdown INS. A strapdown INS that uses a FOG has no moving parts, is absolutely noiseless and maintenance-free, has outstanding mean time between failures performance (up to 80,000 for some models) and low power consumption (several tens of Watts).
The FOG technology came to replace the ring laser gyroscopes (RLG) that have moveable parts and require periodic maintenance, such as calibration and replacement of worn-out bearings and components, and have relatively high power consumption.Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)
An aircraft without a pilot aboard. There are several types of UAVs:
- unmanned unguided UAVs;
- unmanned automatic UAVs;
- unmanned remotely piloted UAVs.
UCAT — Unified Corporate Automated Treasury System
JSC — Joint Stock Company
INS — Inertial navigation system
UAV — unmanned aerial vehicle
MTC — military technical cooperation
MI — Measuring instruments
IMA — Integrated modular avionics
GBA — General and business aviation
R&D — Research and development
EW — Electronic warfareз
ACS — Automatic control system
CIS — Commonwealth of Independent States